Vaquero Horsemanship Demonstration

via Richard Beal’s Blog

This was recorded at the Santa Ynez Valley Historical Museum’s 29th Annual Vaquero Show and Sale on November 10, 2013 in Santa Ynez, California. Jeff Derby was the horseman for the demonstration.

A Handbook for Ranch Managers Planned Grazing: A Study Guide and Reference Manual Environmental & Natural Resource Economics: The Austrian View Combat Shooter's Handbook Reconnaissance Marine MCI 03.32f: Marine Corps Institute The Betrayed: On Warriors, Cowboys and Other Misfits

The Essence of Liberty: Volume I: Liberty and History: The Rise and Fall of the Noble Experiment with Constitutionally Limited Government (Liberty and ... Limited Government) (Volume 1)  The Essence of Liberty: Volume II: The Economics of Liberty (Volume 2) The Essence of Liberty: Volume III: A Universal Philosophy of Political Economy (Liberty: A Universal Political Ethic) (Volume 3)

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Planned Grazing: A Study Guide and Reference ManualPlanned Grazing: A Study Guide and Reference Manual. This is the ideal squeal to A Handbook for Ranch Managers.  Although the ecological principles remain the same, what was originally known as “The Savory Grazing Method” now answers to a multitude of different names: ranching for profit, holistic management, managed grazing, mob grazing, management intensive grazing, etc. Land & Livestock International, Inc. uses “Restoration Grazing” under its “Managing the Ranch as a Business” program.” No mater what you call it, this summary and synopsis will guide you step by step through the process and teach you how to use it as it was originally intended. No more excuses for failing to complete your grazing plans.

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Lee Ann Womack – Buckaroo

If this doesn’t make you pat your foot, you must be dead. — jtl

The Essence of Liberty: Volume I: Liberty and History: The Rise and Fall of the Noble Experiment with Constitutionally Limited Government (Liberty and ... Limited Government) (Volume 1)  The Essence of Liberty: Volume II: The Economics of Liberty (Volume 2) The Essence of Liberty: Volume III: A Universal Philosophy of Political Economy (Liberty: A Universal Political Ethic) (Volume 3)

Environmental & Natural Resource Economics: The Austrian View

edited by

Dr Jimmy T (Gunny) LaBaume

Is now available in both PAPERBACK and Kindle

BookCoverImageMurray N. Rothbard was the father of what some call Radical Libertarianism or Anarcho-Capitalism which Hans-Hermann Hoppe described as “Rothbard’s unique contribution to the rediscovery of property and property rights as the common foundation of both economics and political philosophy, and the systematic reconstruction and conceptual integration of modern, marginalist economics and natural-law political philosophy into a unified moral science: libertarianism.”

This book applies the principles of this “unified moral science” to environmental and natural resource management issues.

The book started out life as an assigned reading list for a university level course entitled Environmental and Natural Resource Economics: The Austrian View.

As I began to prepare to teach the course, I quickly saw that there was a plethora of textbooks suitable for universal level courses dealing with environmental and natural resource economics. The only problem was that they were all based in mainstream neo-classical (or Keynesian) theory. I could find no single collection of material comprising a comprehensive treatment of environmental and natural resource economics based on Austrian Economic Theory.

However, I was able to find a large number of essays, monographs, papers delivered at professional meetings and published from a multitude of sources. This book is the result. It is composed of a collection of research reports and essays by reputable scientists, economists, and legal experts as well as private property and free market activists.

The book is organized into seven parts: I. Environmentalism: The New State Religion; II. The New State Religion Debunked; III. Introduction to Environmental and Natural Resource Economics; IV. Interventionism: Law and Regulation; V. Pollution and Recycling; VI. Property Rights: Planning, Zoning and Eminent Domain; and VII. Free Market Conservation. It also includes an elaborate Bibliography, References and Recommended Reading section including an extensive Annotated Bibliography of related and works on the subject.

The intellectual level of the individual works ranges from quite scholarly to informed editorial opinion.

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Thinking of leasing bulls? 17 things to consider when writing the lease

Thinking of leasing some bulls? Check out this list of things to consider for your bull lease agreement.

By Cari Rincker via Beef Magazine

A Handbook for Ranch Managers Bulls are expensive to buy and they’re expensive to keep. They work three months of the year, then spend the rest of the time lying around, tearing things up and eating expensive feed. And those are just a few reasons why a cattleman may choose to lease a bull. Oftentimes, these Planned Grazing: A Study Guide and Reference Manual ansactions are done on a handshake; however, getting the terms of the lease in writing can protect both parties, help articulate a clear agreement, and provide a roadmap for resolving disputes to preserve a business relationship. Here are some tips on what to include in a bull lease agreement:

  • Combat Shooter's Handbook Identification of animals: The lease should be clear on which bull(s) are subject to the lease. If the bull is registered with a breed association, it is recommended to include the breed registration number and a copy of the registration paper as an addendum. Consider Environmental & Natural Resource Economics: The Austrian Viewputting the approximate weight and body condition score of the bull at the time of the agreement; in some cases, the bull owner will include a photograph of the bull to illustrate his condition on or around the date of delivery.Identify the cows: In most cases, bull leases should be clear on which females the bull will be bred to. In some instances, a detailed list of the cows, their identification numbers, dates of birth and breed may be attached as an addendum to the lease. This may be important for multiple reasons: (1) to show that the bull will not be overworked; (2) to demonstrate that the bull will or will not be used on virgin heifers or; (3) the bull will not be bred to unapproved cows owned by the breeder or third parties.
  • Bull use location(s): The bull lease should be clear where the bull will be housed. Will the bull be on pasture on the breeder’s property? Will the bull transfer among three different properties owned or rented by the breeder?
  • Delivery: How is the bull being transported from the bull owner’s property to the breeder’s property? Who pays for the expense of the transportation and bears any risk of loss, injury or illness of the bull during the delivery time? Are there penalties for late delivery? Will the bull be transported to a bull stud once a month during the lease? It is also recommended that both parties agree to comply with transportation laws for the truck and trailer and any animal welfare laws that apply to the transportation of livestock, including the “twenty-eight hour law.”
  • Term: The term of the lease and procedures for extending the term should be clear.
  • Payment terms: Bull leases should have unambiguous payment terms. What is the rate, timing for payment, payment method(s) and instructions, and penalty for late payment, including interest. Some bull leases require a security deposit to help ensure the delivery of a healthy bull at the end of the term.
  • Option to purchase: Will the breeder have an option to purchase the bull at the end of the lease or is this a “rent-to-own” contract for a bull?
  • Insurance: The bull may be insured to cover risks relating to the death, injury or illness of: (a) the bull; (b) other animals caused by the bull or; (c) people caused by the bull. This coverage may be included in the Farmowner’s Comprehensive Liability Policy, coverage by specialized and targeted livestock insurance, or another type of commercial insurance; however, the parties to the bull lease should address this issue.
  • Representations: Are the parties making any representations to the other party? For example, the bull owner might be representing the bull’s ownership, breed, pedigree, expected progeny differences according to the breed association, genetic DNA markers, health, fertility and structural soundness. If the bull owner represents that the bull tested positively for a certain genetic marker, then the bull owner should make sure that the lease acknowledges that genetic DNA tests are not 100% accurate and the bull owner is not taking responsibility for any error by the tester. On the flip side, the breeder may represent the health of his or her cowherd, the breed or age of the cows, certain nutrition programs, and that the animal handling practices used on the cattle operation are in compliance with federal and state animal welfare laws.
  • Record-keeping: Are there any record-keeping requirements under the lease? For example, is the breeder required to keep any feeding or breeding records? Does the breeder have to supply the bull owner with any data on the progeny, such as weaning weight, yearling weigh or genetic DNA markers?
  • Veterinary care: The issue of veterinary care should be addressed in the bull lease. It is recommended that the breeder be required to call the bull owner immediately if a medical issue ensues. Do the parties have a list of approved veterinarians? If there is an emergency, can the breeder use any available veterinarian? Who will pay for reasonable and necessary veterinary expenses?
  • Care of the bull: Parties to a bull lease should consider adding language concerning the care of the bull. Is the breeder required to use certain management techniques or nutrition programs? Is there a penalty if the bull is delivered back to the bull owner malnourished at the end of the lease term or has experienced a significant loss of weight? Unless otherwise agreed, there should be a clause restricting the breeder from taking the bull to a bull stud or otherwise collecting his semen.
page 2
  • Risk of loss, injury or illness: Who is bearing the risk of loss, death, injury or illness to: (a) the bull; (b) other animals caused by the bull or; (c) people caused by the bull. Is there a penalty if the bull is injured, either with or without the fault of the breeder, so as to make the bull unserviceable to other females, including but not limited to him being crippled, unsound, or injured sheath, penis or scrotum? As noted above, how should risk of loss, injury or illness be addressed while the bull is being transported between farms and ranches?
  • Warranty/guarantee: Is either party making a warranty or guarantee? Perhaps the bull owner wants to give a warranty that the bull is of a certain breed and free of genetic birth defects. Most breed associations have posted online the genetic testing status of registered bulls, which can be included as an addendum to the lease, illustrating that the bull is pedigree-free, tested-free or assumed-free of genetic birth defects.If a warranty to the bull’s fertility is made, then the bull owner should supply a veterinarian-approved and signed breeding soundness evaluation as proof that the bull is a satisfactory potential breeder. On the other hand, the breeder may guarantee that the cows are healthy. Warranties on health and fertility are common if the payment terms are directly related to confirmed pregnancies. Conversely, the bull owner may want to specifically state that he does not warrant that the semen is fit for a particular purpose or that the bull’s semen will result in the production of a calf or that the progeny will result in congenital birth defects.
  • Termination: Under what circumstances can either party terminate the bull lease? For example, many bull leases allow for the termination of the lease if either party materially breaches the contract. Furthermore, there could be a clause saying that either party could terminate the lease, giving the other party X days written notice.
  • Confidentiality: This issue of confidentiality should be discussed when negotiating a bull lease. If the parties haven’t already signed a non-disclosure agreement, do they want the terms of the bull lease to be confidential? Will any exceptions to this confidentiality apply and for how long should the obligation of confidentiality apply?
  • Dispute resolution: Few bull leases address dispute resolution and they should—just ask anyone who has been a party to law suit. Litigation can be long and expensive. Parties should consider having a mediation clause requiring the parties to a bull lease to use an experienced agriculture mediator to help facilitate a settlement of the dispute. If mediation is futile, the parties should consider having a binding arbitration clause under the rules of the American Arbitration Association.
  • Relationship of parties: In most cases, the contract should be clear that the bull owner and breeder are not forming a partnership, joint venture, agency, or any other formal business association. As an exception, if the bull lease includes a provision that the parties will sell the progeny from the bull and split the proceeds, then it is a partnership and instead of a bull lease, the parties should have a general partnership agreement.Put simply, when two or more people go to business together and share profits, then they have formed a partnership. This is an important concept to understand because general partnerships are oftentimes formed in the livestock community, sometimes inadvertently. Partners can legally bind other partners. If it is not your intent to form a partnership, then make sure your lease includes a simple clause clarifying that it is a lessor/lessee relationship versus a partnership.

Combat Shooter's Handbook Reconnaissance Marine MCI 03.32f: Marine Corps Institute The Betrayed: On Warriors, Cowboys and Other MisfitsA few other provisions: If the bull owner and the breeder are in different states, it is paramount that the contract should say what the choice of law is (e.g., New York, Illinois, Texas). Is there any exclusivity between the parties? Can the agreement be modified in writing? How will the parties handle Acts of God—tornado, earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, fire? Can the bull be subleased?

The Essence of Liberty: Volume I: Liberty and History: The Rise and Fall of the Noble Experiment with Constitutionally Limited Government (Liberty and ... Limited Government) (Volume 1)  The Essence of Liberty: Volume II: The Economics of Liberty (Volume 2) The Essence of Liberty: Volume III: A Universal Philosophy of Political Economy (Liberty: A Universal Political Ethic) (Volume 3)As you can see, there is no “one-size fits” bull lease that is suitable for every transaction. That’s why it is dangerous for cattle producers to pull a form off the Internet, fill in a few blanks, and hope that it’s “good enough.” Bull leases should be carefully tailored for the unique needs of your operation and the circumstances surrounding a particular transaction. It behooves cattle producers to hire an attorney to help craft a suitable bull lease. Cattle producers can help keep legal costs down by using this checklist and working through all the issues with the other party before consulting an attorney. Even if an attorney is not used as the draftsman, cattlemen should try to memorialize the terms of the bull lease in writing.

Editor’s Note—Cari Rincker grew up on a seedstock Simmental cattle operation in Shelbyville, Ill., where she spent significant time working on her family’s farm. She showed cattle through 4-H and FFA at both the local and national levels and was in involved with the American Junior Simmental Association. She has a bachelor’s degree in animal science from Texas A&M University; a master’s degree in animal nutrition from the University of Illinois; and a Juris Doctor degree from Pace University School of Law. She has offices in New York City and in Champaign, Ill.

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A Handbook for Ranch ManagersA Handbook for Ranch Managers.  In keeping with the “holistic” idea that the land, the livestock, the people and the money should be viewed as a single integrated whole: Part I deals with the management of the natural resources. Part II covers livestock production and Part III deals with the people and the money. Not only would this book make an excellent basic text for a university program in Ranch Management, no professional ranch manager’s reference bookshelf should be without it. It is a comprehensive reference manual for managing the working ranch. The information in the appendices and extensive bibliography alone is worth the price of the book.

You might be interested in this books supplement: Planned Grazing: A Study Guide and Reference Manual.

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Understanding grazing systems is not easy

Grazing plans integrate the biology of plants and animals. Grass is the mainstay of a grazing plan, and the subsequent understanding and implementation of grazing can be overwhelming at times.

Planned Grazing: A Study Guide and Reference ManualImmediately, in the first paragraph, this college boy left out the people and the money.

My old mama taught me to despise braggarts but I really can’t pass this one up. In my humble opinion, what the hippies call “holistic” A Handbook for Ranch Managersmanagement (and I call planned grazing and managing the ranch as a business) is the most efficient and thorough, step by step method for whole ranch planning that is available today. We consider the land, the livestock, the people and the money as one single integrated whole. 

By Kris Ringwall/NDSU Extension Service 

Environmental & Natural Resource Economics: The Austrian View Grazing plans integrate the biology of plants and animals. Grass is the mainstay of a grazing plan, and the subsequent understanding and implementation of grazing can be overwhelming at times.

Combat Shooter's Handbook When the discussion widens to not only engage the grass discussion but the animal discussion, as well, the participants have been known to get a little testy. The concepts and associated processes in designing grazing systems are complicated but well-understood. Compounding the active discussion is the variation associated with whatever the species of animal that is selected to do the grazing.

Reconnaissance Marine MCI 03.32f: Marine Corps Institute Additional input soon will erupt regarding the animal type selected within the species selected. Take large or small cows, for example. Each time I address the topic, general discussions, thoughts and opinions are advanced that far outweigh the application of factual data relative to The Betrayed: On Warriors, Cowboys and Other Misfitsimplementation of a grazing system. So let me, in a more personal way, express some of the challenges that are presented to me each time the subject is broached.

Several concepts must be placed on the table for The Essence of Liberty: Volume I: Liberty and History: The Rise and Fall of the Noble Experiment with Constitutionally Limited Government (Liberty and ... Limited Government) (Volume 1)  The Essence of Liberty: Volume II: The Economics of Liberty (Volume 2) The Essence of Liberty: Volume III: A Universal Philosophy of Political Economy (Liberty: A Universal Political Ethic) (Volume 3)discussion at the same time. The list generally includes desired levels of animal performance, desired level of forage utilization, and desired levels of quantity and quality of forage production. The goal: Combine these three thoughts into a bottom line that ultimately would produce the ranch a profit, outputs minus inputs, sustainably through time.

Most producers will rely on history, adjusted for current seasonal weather inputs, to help assess each year’s opportunity for grazing forage. But is the system right? Is there something better? Those two questions trigger considerable discussion in the range and ranch community. But let’s take each of the three desires and look at how a logical discussion could unfold.

Setting a desired level of cattle performance requires an understanding of cattle growth potential, but more importantly, it requires setting the size of cow and meeting the cow’s nutritional requirements. Although range systems are based on the metabolic weight of an animal unit, for discussion as cattle producers, the 1,000-pound cow (including calf at side or dry) is the standard weight of one animal unit. The 1,000-pound cow is allotted 26 pounds of pasture forage per day to meet the nutritional needs of the cow.

Cattle performance or efficiency is not a function of setting up a grazing system. There are differences in cattle types and efficiency, but that difference does not impact the grazing system. All a producer needs to know is the average weight of the cattle going into a pasture.

In regard to forage utilization, the age-old standard is still relevant today and has not changed: Take half and leave half. Taking half of the forage and leaving half of the forage remains the goal of many grazing systems. Systems that remove more than half of the total forage production may be detrimental to plant viability and could change plant populations. Leaving half is not based on plant height but total weight, so more than half of the plant height will be harvested.

Also, even though 50 percent of the total weight of the plant is utilized, only 25 percent of the total weight actually is ingested by the cow because 25 percent of the total weight is lost to trampling, is used for bedding, dries out or decomposes through animal waste products. All a producer needs to know is most grazing systems assume a 25 percent harvest efficiency of total forage weight.

So why so much discussion of grazing systems? Harvest efficiency will vary as cattle numbers are varied and with the intensity of the grazing system. If additional grazing pressure is applied, the “take half, leave half” rule is violated, but harvest efficiency may increase. By decreasing grazing pressure, harvest efficiency actually goes down. Another term, grazing efficiency, is used to represent the proportion of utilized forage; it’s the “take half” that is ingested vs. wasted when grazing density is changed. As grazing density (more cows per acre) increases, grazing efficiency can increase. So there are components of grazing systems that vary depending on the system.

Again, in setting up a grazing system, start with the concept of “take half, leave half.” Of course, the desired levels of quantity and quality of forage production are the most critical to understand because cattle weight is set and forage utilization is determined by the grazing system. Forage quality ultimately will be determined by the grazing system. However, producers must know how much total forage can be produced, given the soil type, topography and environment. More next week.

May you find all your ear tags.

For more information, contact https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/news or North Dakota State University Extension Service, NDSU Dept. 7000, 315 Morrill Hall, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108-6050.

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Planned Grazing: A Study Guide and Reference ManualPlanned Grazing: A Study Guide and Reference Manual. This is the ideal squeal to A Handbook for Ranch Managers.  Although the ecological principles remain the same, what was originally known as “The Savory Grazing Method” now answers to a multitude of different names: ranching for profit, holistic management, managed grazing, mob grazing, management intensive grazing, etc. Land & Livestock International, Inc. uses “Restoration Grazing” under its “Managing the Ranch as a Business” program.” No mater what you call it, this summary and synopsis will guide you step by step through the process and teach you how to use it as it was originally intended. No more excuses for failing to complete your grazing plans.

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Wise investments during good times in the cattle business

Weigh the alternatives using ROI

A Handbook for Ranch Managers I do not necessarily endorse any of these suggestions. But some of them just might work for you depending on your situation.

Now to the criticisms.

Planned Grazing: A Study Guide and Reference Manual Using the Return on Investment (ROI) technique is fine for short-term (one shot-one year) projects that do not require a large capital outlay.

However, the “time value of money” must be considered for longer term projects that Environmental & Natural Resource Economics: The Austrian Viewanticipate a flow of returns over a period of time. These include the Present Net Worth, Benefit:Cost Ratio and Internal Rate of Return methods (see Chapter 17 RANCH INVESTMENT ANALYSIS AND CAPITAL BUDGETING in A Handbook for Ranch Managers).

Combat Shooter's Handbook Reconnaissance Marine MCI 03.32f: Marine Corps Institute The Betrayed: On Warriors, Cowboys and Other MisfitsYour very first priority should be: GET DEBT FREE!

Also, until you The Essence of Liberty: Volume I: Liberty and History: The Rise and Fall of the Noble Experiment with Constitutionally Limited Government (Liberty and ... Limited Government) (Volume 1)  The Essence of Liberty: Volume II: The Economics of Liberty (Volume 2) The Essence of Liberty: Volume III: A Universal Philosophy of Political Economy (Liberty: A Universal Political Ethic) (Volume 3)have your ranch split into 100 or more paddocks, your highest rate of return (considering the time value of money) will almost always be on fencing. That is because, each fence you build helps the WHOLE ranch and not just one group of cattle or one pasture of land.  — jtl

By via Canadian Cattlemen

Twelve years without a raise in pay from the marketplace spawned a lot of cost-cutting measures on cow-calf operations.

Now, it’s time to put those ideas to use to catch up, and maybe even get ahead.

“We are in a new era,” notes Ray Bittner, a livestock specialist with Manitoba Agriculture in Ashern. “Today’s calf prices mean you can, and should, be doing things to enhance productivity. We should push to get more. After all, farms survive hard times by equity buildup in good times.”

Bittner has some tips on ways to improve productivity that may not be obvious until you look at their potential return on investment (ROI).

ROI is calculated by dividing the additional value an improvement is expected to bring by how much extra you’d have to spend to get it. The higher the ratio the better.

Naturally ROI fluctuates with market prices and input costs. The following examples are based on a 500-pound (lb.) calf sold for $2.70/lb. or a gross revenue of $1,350 per cow.

Bittner’s calculations show that the biggest bang for your buck in today’s market will come from investing in nutrition, specifically in three areas: ensuring a cow body condition score (BCS) of 2.5 to 3.0 at calving, renting pasture, and creep feeding calves.

If you implement all three, the additional expense as Bittner recently calculated it, amounted to $67 per pair. The benefit was about 90 extra pounds on each calf by weaning, bringing an additional $243 per calf. The overall ROI is 3.63:1 ($243/$67).

Bittner walks us through the math.

For BCS, he refers to the Beef Cattle Research Council’s new interactive productivity and profitability calculator that quantifies income losses as BCS slides outside the optimum 2.5 to 3.0 (http://www.beefresearch.ca/research/body-condition-scoring.cfm).

When cows aren’t carrying adequate body condition it paid to provide extra energy. The cost for 5.0 lbs. of barley and two ounces of a premium mineral mix per head per day for 60 days was $27.90 per cow with barley is 7.5 cents/pound and mineral 4.5 cents/ounce.

In return you could expect calf and cow survival rates to improve by 3.0 per cent and 0.25 per cent respectively. The total 3.25 per cent boost in productivity spread across the herd represents an additional 16.25 lbs. (3.25×500) of weaning weight per cow. Add to that 3.0 per cent more income from improved milk production and another 15 lbs. per calf. The totals are 31.25 lbs. of additional weaning weight per calf, and a 6.25 per cent increase in gross revenue or $84 per cow ($1,350×6.25=84.37 or 31×2.70=83.70).

The ROI is 3:1 ($84/$27.90). On top of that, a 3.0 per cent improvement in pregnancy rates will increase productivity next year.

Rented pasture

Bittner suggests renting pasture instead of pushing the limit on your own pastures if you are expanding, or had to push them hard in the past to stretch your budget.

If it costs $85 per cow (forage cost only) to pasture a cow and you rent 15 per cent more pasture, the added expense is $12.75 per cow.

Given a modest increase in the rate of gain on the calves of two ounces a day, it’s not unlikely they will be at least 20 pounds heavier at weaning. That’s a benefit of $54 per calf.

The ROI on renting 15 per cent more pasture is 4.24:1 ($54/$12.75) and you may be able to keep the cattle on pasture a little longer.

Creep feed

When feed grain prices are low and calf prices are high Bittner says creep feeding can pay.

If calves consume 4.0 pounds of supplement per day for 60 days toward the end of the grazing season and the supplement costs $250 per tonne, the cost would be $26.40 per calf.

Using a typical 6:1 feed-to-gain ratio, the additional gain would be 0.66 pounds per day or around 40 pounds, for a benefit of $108 per calf.

The ROI on creep feeding was 4.1:1 ($108/26.40).

Vaccinations

“Don’t miss out on a good vaccination program. There’s always a strong ROI and the return is two weeks to two years,” he adds.

Putting a blackleg vaccine in calves is the most basic and inexpensive program.

Vaccinating cows for IBR/BVD reduces the chance of abortions, stillbirths, weak calves, late calves and persistently infected calves.

Adding an IBR/BVD vaccine for calves will prime their immune systems to better withstand stresses.

Fertilizing

Fertilizing forages and spreading manure properly also offer positive ROIs as shown in a phosphorus ramp trial at five sites across Manitoba’s Interlake region. Soil tests were taken after the sites were selected so as not to bias the results by selecting only low-phosphorus fields.

Bittner headed up the study that started in fall 2008 with application of commercial phosphorus at zero, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 pounds per acre or cattle manure at 15 and 30 tonnes per acre. Forage yields and phosphorus content in the plants were recorded for the next three years.

With forage valued at two cents per pound and commercial fertilizer at $800 per tonne, the 40-pound rate provided the best ROI at 1.8:1. He suggests that in the long run 60, 80 or 100 pounds (ROI of 1.4:1, 1.5:1, 1.2:1 respectively) could potentially be the best investment in terms of healthier pastures better able to withstand winterkill.

ROI-fertilizer-alfalfa

At the three highest rates the phosphorus content in the plants was 0.17 per cent. This meets the daily dietary requirement for lactating cows and growing calves, though dry cows require 0.19 per cent. Phosphorus content averaged 0.16 per cent for the 40-pound sites and 0.14 per cent for the 20-pound and unfertilized sites.

Applying manure evenly and thinly returned more value for the dollars spent hauling and spreading than heavy applications or dumping it and then pushing it around. Spreading 15 tonnes per acre across strips 16.5 feet wide by a half-mile long, cost of $30 per acre, and gave an ROI of 2.4:1. Doubling the rate to 30 tonnes per acre doubled the cost, but didn’t do much for yield resulting in an ROI of 1.4:1. When they applied more the ROI dipped into the negative range because of lodging, disease and hard-to-cure hay.

Reduce waste

Extended grazing is definitely a cost saver, but it’s not a production maximizer, Bittner says. Two questions to ask yourself are whether the savings amount to more than the value of production lost and what your time is worth in winter.

The advantages are that it’s the most efficient way to retain nitrogen and provides better nutrient distribution compared to spreading manure hauled from pens.

Some industry-average values for savings per cow with extended grazing are that it reduces fuel costs ($15), eliminates manure removal cost ($6.77, hauling only), reduces machinery cost ($20) and lowers investment cost in machinery ($3), rounding up to $45 per cow over the winter. Lower labour costs bump it to $85 per cow.

The big drawbacks are the risk of nutrient loss and reduced palatability due to weather damage, mould, wildlife and heavy snowfall that makes access difficult. A loss of 150 pounds of feed per bale at 4.5 cents per pound totals $6.75 per bale.

The bottom line is that productivity losses near or greater than 6.2 per cent of gross cow revenue (6.2x$1,350) in an extended grazing program pretty much cancels out the $85-per-cow savings. A 3.2 per cent loss of productivity nears the $44-per-cow saving.

Buying feed versus land

Buying feed is a quick way to increase feedstocks without committing to a long-term investment and it offers flexibility to choose the type and quality of feed you need. Some years, as was the case in 2014, grain was cheaper than hay and a lot more nutrients can be packed onto a truckload of grain than a truckload of hay.

The cost of transporting hay is the main drawback so plan ahead and be on the lookout for local suppliers, Bittner advises. Even if they want a premium, the total cost may be less than importing cheaper hay from farther away.

Sticker shock can be an issue in high-price feed years when hay prices climb to five, six and seven cents a pound, but high calf prices trump high feed costs, he says. Remember, too, that some of the nutrients will accrue to the soil, especially with in-field feeding systems.

Some years it may be cheaper to buy extra hay than tying up your land, time and equipment to grow and harvest it. Couple that with the expense deduction for tax purposes and you may be that much farther ahead by buying feed.

Environmental & Natural Resource Economics: The Austrian View

edited by

Dr Jimmy T (Gunny) LaBaume

Is now available in both PAPERBACK and Kindle

BookCoverImageMurray N. Rothbard was the father of what some call Radical Libertarianism or Anarcho-Capitalism which Hans-Hermann Hoppe described as “Rothbard’s unique contribution to the rediscovery of property and property rights as the common foundation of both economics and political philosophy, and the systematic reconstruction and conceptual integration of modern, marginalist economics and natural-law political philosophy into a unified moral science: libertarianism.”

This book applies the principles of this “unified moral science” to environmental and natural resource management issues.

The book started out life as an assigned reading list for a university level course entitled Environmental and Natural Resource Economics: The Austrian View.

As I began to prepare to teach the course, I quickly saw that there was a plethora of textbooks suitable for universal level courses dealing with environmental and natural resource economics. The only problem was that they were all based in mainstream neo-classical (or Keynesian) theory. I could find no single collection of material comprising a comprehensive treatment of environmental and natural resource economics based on Austrian Economic Theory.

However, I was able to find a large number of essays, monographs, papers delivered at professional meetings and published from a multitude of sources. This book is the result. It is composed of a collection of research reports and essays by reputable scientists, economists, and legal experts as well as private property and free market activists.

The book is organized into seven parts: I. Environmentalism: The New State Religion; II. The New State Religion Debunked; III. Introduction to Environmental and Natural Resource Economics; IV. Interventionism: Law and Regulation; V. Pollution and Recycling; VI. Property Rights: Planning, Zoning and Eminent Domain; and VII. Free Market Conservation. It also includes an elaborate Bibliography, References and Recommended Reading section including an extensive Annotated Bibliography of related and works on the subject.

The intellectual level of the individual works ranges from quite scholarly to informed editorial opinion.

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Ranch Diaries: How to coexist with wild animals

 When your livelihood depends on the boundaries you set with the natural world.

A Handbook for Ranch Managers Many (if not most) of us have done most of the things that Laura Jean talks about as a matter of routine for all of our lives.

For example, rattlesnakes: I do not kill rattlers in the pasture. But around the house, the barn, the Planned Grazing: A Study Guide and Reference Manualcorrals, etc. well, that is a whole different story.

Then there are rabbits. It used to be said that it only takes about 20 Jackrabbits to eat as much forage as a cow. Then came the studies that showed rabbits are coyotes’ primary diet. I no Environmental & Natural Resource Economics: The Austrian Viewlonger shoot rabbits as I would rather have the coyotes eating them than eating my lambs and kid goats (every carnivore on earth, including me, loves Cabrito–Spanish word for BBQ Kid Goat).

But the “wild horses” are another story. Remember, those herds also include stallions. This really puts horseback children in danger. Hence, I recommend you always carry a rifle on your saddle if you live in such an area.

It is telling of the effectiveness of radical environmentalist propaganda that we now have to write about them in self-defense. — jtl

Ranch Diaries is an hcn.org series highlighting the experiences of Laura Jean Schneider, who gives us a peek into daily life during the first year of Triangle P Cattle Company, a new LLC in southcentral New Mexico. Installments are every other Tuesday.

Sam told me yesterday that the spine of a rattlesnake I killed and hauled to the old dump down by the arroyo has been picked bare and clean, bleached white by the sun. In one month, it went from a four-foot long snake to a string of bones. And I’m the one responsible.

Combat Shooter's Handbook Reconnaissance Marine MCI 03.32f: Marine Corps Institute The Betrayed: On Warriors, Cowboys and Other MisfitsIn her book Landscapes of the New West, Krista Comer writes, “humans have always The Essence of Liberty: Volume I: Liberty and History: The Rise and Fall of the Noble Experiment with Constitutionally Limited Government (Liberty and ... Limited Government) (Volume 1)  The Essence of Liberty: Volume II: The Economics of Liberty (Volume 2) The Essence of Liberty: Volume III: A Universal Philosophy of Political Economy (Liberty: A Universal Political Ethic) (Volume 3)altered nature in order to survive.” She believes, “nature is not ‘natural’ at all,” since it’s constantly being shaped by both humans and animals. Sam and I are confronted with this idea daily, and must often choose whose rights, territory, and boundaries will take priority as we navigate our current ecosystem. In the case of two large spiders hiding in the wind-tattered fabric of our porch awning, we’re happy to share fly season with these ambitious arachnids. At dusk they spin webs spanning several feet, anchoring their strong strands from the canopy, wrapping up beetles, flies, and other airborne insects with efficiency.

  • Evidence of domestic livestock from times past.

    Laura Jean Schneider
  • Sandhill cranes fly over.

    Laura Jean Schneider
  • A brave meadowlark in winter.

    Laura Jean Schneider
  • A fossil in a nearby arroyo.

    Laura Jean Schneider
  • The Triangle P cattle and these wild horses get along harmoniously.

    Laura Jean Schneider
  • The tail end of a badger, digging away from Sam.

    Laura Jean Schneider
  • This thistle is a weed to us, a haven to this tiny beetle.

    Laura Jean Schneider
  • Coconut thinks she’s a human, not an elk, after being raised by people.

    Laura Jean Schneider

 Ditto with the sluggish and enormous bull snake I almost stepped on some afternoons ago, who was making his or her way across the sunny driveway. We like bull snakes: they help our two cats keep rodents out of our hay and grain storage. But the same predatory nature we desire in the cats doesn’t discriminate. Perhaps loosened by the recent heavy rains, a barn swallow’s nest on the east side of the old house collapsed last week. The young swallows were too small to fly on their own, and their parents circled and swooped, calling, frantic. Later, I found a spray of feathers and tiny wings in the soft mud.

A Bewick’s wren has a nest in the old windmill tower next to the salt shed, and a curve-billed thrasher, with her striking yellow eyes, has just built a nest in a thicket of nearby cholla cactus. Two small white eggs sit abandoned in a nest tucked in a cholla plant twelve feet from our camper, eggs that didn’t hatch with the rest of the brood of finches that grew to maturity beneath the protective spines of the cactus thorns. Under the neck of our parked horse trailer, a Say’s phoebe has a nest, perhaps making meals from the active ant mound beneath it.

We’re a part of this landscape now. We have settled in and brought our priorities along with us. When a rattlesnake’s telltale buzz sounded from right underneath our camper a month ago, I knew I had to kill it. Yet I was sad to take the life of something more native to this landscape than I. For many years, this snake had thrived, and I cut its life short. But even in self-defense – for I, or one of our valuable working cattle dogs or ranch horses could have been fatally bitten – there’s a cost to that trade, a sobering reminder that while we often meld peacefully with our surroundings, sometimes we butt up against the wild and are forced to make difficult, unsettling choices.

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A Handbook for Ranch ManagersA Handbook for Ranch Managers.  In keeping with the “holistic” idea that the land, the livestock, the people and the money should be viewed as a single integrated whole: Part I deals with the management of the natural resources. Part II covers livestock production and Part III deals with the people and the money. Not only would this book make an excellent basic text for a university program in Ranch Management, no professional ranch manager’s reference bookshelf should be without it. It is a comprehensive reference manual for managing the working ranch. The information in the appendices and extensive bibliography alone is worth the price of the book.

You might be interested in this books supplement: Planned Grazing: A Study Guide and Reference Manual.

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The counties that actively oppose a federal lands transfer

Commissioners fear states could reduce county power and remove public access.

A Handbook for Ranch Managers My hope would be that they turn the lands over to their rightful owners–the families who have lived on, worked and taken care of these lands for 4 or 5 generations.

I did not investigate (if you have time, let us know Planned Grazing: A Study Guide and Reference Manual how it comes out) but I would bet that most of these counties are either in urban areas or areas heavily dependent on tourism. I would also bet that a thorough search would reveal that the opposing commissioners have some sort of vested financial interest in the outcome.

Environmental & Natural Resource Economics: The Austrian ViewEither way, they are all collectivists and I hate collectivists. — jtl, 419

by Tay Wiles via the nonsense typical of High Country News

Combat Shooter's Handbook Reconnaissance Marine MCI 03.32f: Marine Corps Institute The Betrayed: On Warriors, Cowboys and Other MisfitsOver the past few years, several Western states have passed or proposed The Essence of Liberty: Volume I: Liberty and History: The Rise and Fall of the Noble Experiment with Constitutionally Limited Government (Liberty and ... Limited Government) (Volume 1)  The Essence of Liberty: Volume II: The Economics of Liberty (Volume 2) The Essence of Liberty: Volume III: A Universal Philosophy of Political Economy (Liberty: A Universal Political Ethic) (Volume 3)legislation to study the possibility of transferring ownership of federal lands from the American public to states. Utah finished a study last fall; Idaho has conducted threeMontana and Nevada have also put out studies. Arizona and Wyoming passed study bills this year. Oregon has a proposal in the works; bills have failed in Colorado, New Mexico and Washington. Supporters of today’s movement, which echoes similar efforts over the past century, say the Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service mismanage land and are driven by Eastern bureaucrats out of touch with Western issues.

A counter-movement is now percolating through a growing number of Western counties. In the state of Colorado, San Miguel, La Plata, Pitkin, San Juan, Eagle, Summit and Boulder counties all oppose transferring ownership of federal land to states. “People think this is just the Sagebrush Rebellion (a resurgence from the 1970s and ’80s movement) and it will never go anywhere,” says Rachel Richards, a Pitkin County commissioner in Colorado. “But we have an entirely different tenor in Washington, DC now. It has been federal government by people who hate federal government.”

Public land at Red Desert, Sweetwater County, Wyoming.
Flickr user weesam2010

Pitkin resolution says that county has “gone to great lengths to ensure that appropriate rights of access to federal lands remain open to the public.” Richards worries that if a land transfer happened, public access to that land would be in jeopardy.

San Miguel County’s resolution, which passed in March,also indicated access for recreation was a major concern. The Salt Lake City council in Utah and Teton and Albany counties in Wyoming passed resolutions opposing the transfer of lands in May.

The commission of Sweetwater County, Wyoming, sent a letter opposing a land transfer to the county’s state senators and representatives in January. The letter cited potential loss of public access and multiple use, and weakened environmental protections. Sweetwater is a notable addition to the opposition movement because at the moment, it’s home to more Republicans than Democrats — a combination that usually equals more support for states’ rights than for federal control.

“I’m out of step with my Republican colleagues,” says Republican Wally Johnson, chairman of the Sweetwater County Commission. Forty-three percent of his county’s assessed valuation is in oil and gas development, and Johnson believes the best way to make sure his constituents retain those jobs is if the federal lands stay with the feds: “I have a seat at the table. I’m not too sure that would happen if the state controlled it.”

The Sweetwater County Commission is also concerned about the financial cost states would have to shoulder in a massive lands transfer scenario. Wyoming’s current budget allocates a million dollars to each county annually for infrastructure repairs. But Mark Kot of Sweetwater’s planning department, says that’s barely enough to pay for a mile of paved road: “The state has a hard time budgeting money right now for community infrastructure repairs.” He wonders how states could also cover the millions that federal agencies allocate annually to each state to pay for management of public lands, including firefighting. According to a 2013 report from Headwaters Economics, the Forest Service and Department of Interior allocate an average of $3.1 billion yearly to protect communities nationwide from wildfire.

Another unanswered question surrounding the possibility of a federal-to-state land transfer is how the change would impact ranchers. Richards of Pitkin County worries states could sell that grazing land to private owners, or in other counties or states with energy reserves, the state could look for other lucrative tenants — like oil and gas developers. Of course, that’s only if states somehow wrested mineral rights in addition to surface rights from the federal government. “As a state, you’d be in the position of managing for maximum revenue,” she says. (Right now, states generally have no obligation to manage for multiple use, as the feds do.) Legal experts, though, say it’s extremely unlikely states would ever gain control of mineral rights. As HCN previously reported: “(Bob Keiter, a University of Utah law professor) points out that historically, in land transfers and exchanges, the federal government did not grant mineral rights to known reserves.”

Richards also worries that taxes and fees would have to go way up in order for states to keep ranchers on that public land. Currently in Colorado, agricultural property taxes and fees to graze livestock on federal land are extremely low. Grazing fees have been the source of bitter controversy for decades. Ranchers who subscribe to an anti-fed viewpoint have consistently lobbied to retain the algorithm that keeps the annual fee dysfunctionally low. And yet, when I asked Demar Dahl, an Elko, Nevada, county commissioner who’s a vocal advocate of the lands transfer idea and a board member of the Nevada Cattlemen’s Association, he wasn’t concerned about grazing fees increasing, in the case of a federal-to-state land transfer. “I think most ranchers would be glad to pay a higher fee because it’s a more stable environment,” Dahl said. “You’re so much closer to the government.”

That last point about whether transfers would put locals closer to government control, I bounced off Wally Congdon, vice president of the Montana Cattlemen’s Association. Congdon is of the view that towns and counties have more power now than they would if states took over land management, in large part because federal agencies are required to work with locals to make federal plans consistent with local plans. “We have the most horsepower to participate with the way the federal law is now,” he says. “If you want to transfer to the state, fine, but change the laws of the state.”

Congdon says that the federal land transfer movement is obstructionist and the opposite of civic engagement. “This is like the movie Network,” he says. “When people just go to the window, throw it open and say, ‘I’m mad as hell and I’m not going to take it any more.’ Well, guess what guys, that is not participation in government.”

If your county has passed a resolution for or against a federal land transfer to state hands, please email the author or let us know in the comment section below.

Tay Wiles is the online editor of High Country News.

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Planned Grazing: A Study Guide and Reference ManualPlanned Grazing: A Study Guide and Reference Manual. This is the ideal squeal to A Handbook for Ranch Managers.  Although the ecological principles remain the same, what was originally known as “The Savory Grazing Method” now answers to a multitude of different names: ranching for profit, holistic management, managed grazing, mob grazing, management intensive grazing, etc. Land & Livestock International, Inc. uses “Restoration Grazing” under its “Managing the Ranch as a Business” program.” No mater what you call it, this summary and synopsis will guide you step by step through the process and teach you how to use it as it was originally intended. No more excuses for failing to complete your grazing plans.

Posted in Private Property Rights, Private Property Rights on the "Public" Domain, Public Domain, Public Lands, Public Lands Ranching, Radical Environmentalism, States Rights | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Secure property rights: Hold government to the law

The message terrified abusive bureaucrats: There are private rights in federal lands – vested rights, not privileges…

Private rights in federal lands were recognized in an 1866 water law. It says, “… whenever, by priority of possession, rights to the use of water have vested and accrued, and the same are recognized and acknowledged by the local customs, laws, and the decisions of courts, the possessors and owners of such vested rights shall be maintained and protected in the same.”

A Handbook for Ranch Managers Indeed, this land is “our” land. The FedGov has blatantly initiated violence against the rightful owners and personally, I would be willing to fight for their God given rights because I know they would be willing to fight for mine.

Think secession. At least it is a step in the right direction. — jtl, 419

by Ron Arnold via CFACT

Planned Grazing: A Study Guide and Reference ManualCliven Bundy marched into my life one Friday morning in January 1992 in a protest bound for a federal courthouse in Las Vegas. He held up one side of a street-width banner that asked, “Has the West been won or has the fight just begun?”

Environmental & Natural Resource Economics: The Austrian View   To my great relief, just as Bundy promised, nearly 200 ranchers from all over the state marched behind him, yelling “Property rights!” Nearly a mile later, the marchers fell silent and filed into the courtroom where Wayne Hage of Pine Creek Ranch faced arraignment for the felony of cleaning brush out of his ditches without a U.S. Forest Service permit.

Combat Shooter's Handbook The Forest Service had already confiscated Hage’s cattle and left him bankrupt, just as the Bureau of Land Management would try with Bundy 22 years later.

Hage had already filed a lawsuit against the The Essence of Liberty: Volume I: Liberty and History: The Rise and Fall of the Noble Experiment with Constitutionally Limited Government (Liberty and ... Limited Government) (Volume 1)  The Essence of Liberty: Volume II: The Economics of Liberty (Volume 2) The Essence of Liberty: Volume III: A Universal Philosophy of Political Economy (Liberty: A Universal Political Ethic) (Volume 3)Forest Service in the U.S. Court of Claims, just as Bundy now has cause to do against the BLM – last week, during their failed attempt to confiscate Bundy’s cattle, agents wantonly bulldozed his water supply into oblivion without court authority.

Wayne Hage did not stand in that courtroom alone because I was honor bound to prevent it – I had published his 1989 book, Storm Over Rangelands: Private Rights in Federal Lands, which unleashed the federal fury.

The message terrified abusive bureaucrats: There are private rights in federal lands – vested rights, not privileges.

His book, the product of three intensive, grueling years consulting with dozens of experts and sifting through many archives, found the dirty little secret that could destroy the abusive power of all federal Western land agencies – by making them obey their own laws.

It was so stunning that a sitting Supreme Court justice secretly sent Wayne a message marveling at his shining intellect – burnished with a masters degree in animal science and honed by academic colloquies as a trustee of the University of Nevada Foundation – and warning of the titanic battle to come.

How true: Hage was convicted of brush cutting but acquitted on appeal. His own lawsuit against the United States took almost 20 years, but proved there are private rights in federal land. He died of cancer in 2006 before he could see how great a victory he had won – and how the battle is still just beginning, as Bundy foresaw.

Wayne’s son, Wayne N. Hage, now manages Pine Creek, and his daughter Ramona Hage Morrison is his intellectual heir. She helped research his book, lived the courthouse agonies with her father and assisted with his seminars on protecting ranchers’ rights. Morrison said:

Bundy cattlePrivate rights in federal lands were recognized in an 1866 water law. It says, “… whenever, by priority of possession, rights to the use of water have vested and accrued, and the same are recognized and acknowledged by the local customs, laws, and the decisions of courts, the possessors and owners of such vested rights shall be maintained and protected in the same.”

That Act was passed a long time ago, but every federal land law since then contains a clause with language similar to, “Nothing in this Act shall be construed to impair any vested right in existence on the effective date of this Act.”

Most ranchers don’t know that and federal agencies exploit their ignorance with harassment that runs them off the land. Actually, understanding vested rights is not too hard – they’re absolute rights not subject to cancellation – but proving up those rights by assembling your chain of title and other technicalities and then making the government protect them is very hard.

The agencies know they don’t own the water rights, so their lawyers fight viciously with misdirection to save their empire from the owners. Ranchers lose in court because they don’t know how to prove up their vested rights and they don’t get lawyers who know the precision required to plead a vested rights case. Very few lawyers know.

Ranchers, get smart. Don’t assume anything. You probably believe a lot of things that aren’t true. Get busy and prove up your vested rights as we did. Get a court to adjudicate them as we did. Yes, your whole life will be one battle after another, like ours. Seek help to develop an army of supporters, as we did. You can shout freedom slogans all you want, but only the courts can destroy the root power of federal abuse.

The BLM has now withdrawn. Bundy has his moment of triumph. The cries of victory are thrilling.

But we know it’s not over yet. The BLM did not leave because angry citizens outnumbered their assault force by 100 to 1. Nothing has touched the BLM’s ability to return.

Get real: the BLM invaders left when it got ugly because it’s an election year and they’re all Democrats. They’ll be back.

Supreme Court 3Property rights defenders can stop them. We can go on the attack in the courts with organized funding to adjudicate protection for every last vested right in the American West. We have the laws to do it. We now need organization, money, brains, and the will to make it happen. Every vested right that we protect will destroy that much federal power to abuse.

Let no ranching family go unprotected.

That’s the hard way, but it’s the only way that works. Stay on target: the federal power to abuse must be destroyed.

______________

This article originally appeared in the Washington Examiner.

Washington Examiner Logo

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A Handbook for Ranch ManagersA Handbook for Ranch Managers.  In keeping with the “holistic” idea that the land, the livestock, the people and the money should be viewed as a single integrated whole: Part I deals with the management of the natural resources. Part II covers livestock production and Part III deals with the people and the money. Not only would this book make an excellent basic text for a university program in Ranch Management, no professional ranch manager’s reference bookshelf should be without it. It is a comprehensive reference manual for managing the working ranch. The information in the appendices and extensive bibliography alone is worth the price of the book.

You might be interested in this books supplement: Planned Grazing: A Study Guide and Reference Manual.

Posted in Private Property and Free Markets, Private Property Rights, Private Property Rights on the "Public" Domain, Public Domain, Public Lands, Public Lands Ranching | Tagged , , , , | Leave a comment

The Colossal Hoax Of Organic Agriculture

By Henry I. Miller and Drew L. Kershen via Forbes

Consumers of organic foods are getting both more and less than they bargained for. On both counts, it’s not good. Many people who pay the huge premium—often more than a hundred percent–for organic foods do so because they’re afraid of pesticides.  If that’s their rationale, they misunderstand the nuances of organic agriculture. Although it’s true that synthetic chemical pesticides are generally prohibited, there is a lengthy list of exceptions listed in the Organic Foods Production Act, while most “natural” ones are permitted. However, “organic” pesticides can be toxic…

Read More

A Handbook for Ranch Managers Planned Grazing: A Study Guide and Reference Manual Environmental & Natural Resource Economics: The Austrian View Combat Shooter's Handbook Reconnaissance Marine MCI 03.32f: Marine Corps Institute The Betrayed: On Warriors, Cowboys and Other Misfits

The Essence of Liberty: Volume I: Liberty and History: The Rise and Fall of the Noble Experiment with Constitutionally Limited Government (Liberty and ... Limited Government) (Volume 1)  The Essence of Liberty: Volume II: The Economics of Liberty (Volume 2) The Essence of Liberty: Volume III: A Universal Philosophy of Political Economy (Liberty: A Universal Political Ethic) (Volume 3)

Environmental & Natural Resource Economics: The Austrian View

edited by

Dr Jimmy T (Gunny) LaBaume

Is now available in both PAPERBACK and Kindle

BookCoverImageMurray N. Rothbard was the father of what some call Radical Libertarianism or Anarcho-Capitalism which Hans-Hermann Hoppe described as “Rothbard’s unique contribution to the rediscovery of property and property rights as the common foundation of both economics and political philosophy, and the systematic reconstruction and conceptual integration of modern, marginalist economics and natural-law political philosophy into a unified moral science: libertarianism.”

This book applies the principles of this “unified moral science” to environmental and natural resource management issues.

The book started out life as an assigned reading list for a university level course entitled Environmental and Natural Resource Economics: The Austrian View.

As I began to prepare to teach the course, I quickly saw that there was a plethora of textbooks suitable for universal level courses dealing with environmental and natural resource economics. The only problem was that they were all based in mainstream neo-classical (or Keynesian) theory. I could find no single collection of material comprising a comprehensive treatment of environmental and natural resource economics based on Austrian Economic Theory.

However, I was able to find a large number of essays, monographs, papers delivered at professional meetings and published from a multitude of sources. This book is the result. It is composed of a collection of research reports and essays by reputable scientists, economists, and legal experts as well as private property and free market activists.

The book is organized into seven parts: I. Environmentalism: The New State Religion; II. The New State Religion Debunked; III. Introduction to Environmental and Natural Resource Economics; IV. Interventionism: Law and Regulation; V. Pollution and Recycling; VI. Property Rights: Planning, Zoning and Eminent Domain; and VII. Free Market Conservation. It also includes an elaborate Bibliography, References and Recommended Reading section including an extensive Annotated Bibliography of related and works on the subject.

The intellectual level of the individual works ranges from quite scholarly to informed editorial opinion.

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Build a Grazing Plan to Balance Forage Supply, Livestock Demand

It makes life so much less complicated when you have a plan.

Planned Grazing: A Study Guide and Reference Manual It is called peace of mind. However, just because you have a grazing plan, do NOT set it in concrete. As soon as it is generated, you assume that you are wrong because you probably are. Enter the importance of monitoring.

A Handbook for Ranch ManagersOne of the most useful things is becoming proficient at the technique we teach in our Planned Grazing course for estimating forage remaining (on any particular piece of ground) in head-days.

by Jesse Bussard  via Gallagher Group Limited


Environmental & Natural Resource Economics: The Austrian ViewThere is more to grazing than just turning cows out to pasture. The forage resource and the livestock grazing it are part of a much larger, more complex system and must be managed as such.

​​A grazing plan, according to specialist Jim Gerrish, offers producers an organized approach to  Combat Shooter's Handbook Reconnaissance Marine MCI 03.32f: Marine Corps Institute The Betrayed: On Warriors, Cowboys and Other Misfitsmanaging the system of soil, plant, animal, and human resources available to the farm or ranch. The Essence of Liberty: Volume I: Liberty and History: The Rise and Fall of the Noble Experiment with Constitutionally Limited Government (Liberty and ... Limited Government) (Volume 1)  The Essence of Liberty: Volume II: The Economics of Liberty (Volume 2) The Essence of Liberty: Volume III: A Universal Philosophy of Political Economy (Liberty: A Universal Political Ethic) (Volume 3)Gerrish, who manages a grazing operation in the Pahsimeroi Valley of north central Idaho, has been involved in grazing practices, research, and consulting since 1980.The reason for a grazing plan says Gerrish is because, “Grass does not grow at the same rate every day of the year, nor does animal consumption rate stay the same. If you don’t have a plan for where you are going it is very hard to bring that supply and demand into balance.”

Imbalance leads to inefficiency building into the rest of the system and unnecessary economical and emotional stresses for producers. To balance supply and demand grazing managers must use a variable stocking rate throughout the year (i.e. don’t have the same number of animals on the place month after month).

“An increase in costs and decrease in income is very often the outcome of not having a grazing plan,” says Gerrish.
​​

Benefits of implementing a grazing plan.

The benefits of implementing a grazing plan include increasing the total number of stock days harvested per acre annually and improved grazing efficiency thanks to having animal demand matched to the available forage supply. In addition, Gerrish notes drought and destocking plans, both vital components of a grazing plan, helps manager proactively plan and be better equipped to deal with drought when it does finally occur.

“Most farmers and ranchers are well into the drought, before they figure out, ‘Man, I’ve got to sell some cattle,” says Gerrish. “If you have a plan you would already be reducing the stocking numbers before your neighbors even realize there is a drought coming.”

While most producers may think they have a grazing plan, in Gerrish’s experience for the majority it is merely a mental note. To implement a grazing plan properly, organization is essential. He recommends producers write things down and do their research ahead of time.

“The first thing I try to do is get an assessment of what the potential carrying capacity of the property is,” says Gerrish.

To do this, Gerrish uses Web Soil Survey (WSS). WSS provides soil data and information produced by the National Cooperative Soil Survey and currently lists surveys for 95% of U.S. counties. Canadians should consult the Canadian Soil Information Service for soil data in their country. Soil surveys allow for potential productivity and carrying capacity to be calculated.

Along with soil surveys, historical weather and rainfall data for the area to be grazed should be reviewed. This information combined with the soil survey, will assist in determining what months of the year forage will be growing, when peaks and declines in production will occur, and when the chief dormant season is.

“We know that we are going to produce forage in a limited period of time, but we are going to try to stretch it over 12 months ideally,” says Gerrish.

Figuring out carrying capacity for what the forage production is going to be allows grazing managers to understand when there will be abundance and deficits of feed.

Next, Gerrish says producers need to look at their stock policy or stock flow, defined as the class of animals and number of animals on the farm or ranch on a month-by-month basis. The goal is to fit the animal demand of the stock policy to what the forage production will be.

It is important to note all of these calculations are based on average conditions. To plan for the possibility of below-average conditions, a drought plan should be incorporated into the grazing plan.

“In a drought plan we are looking at probability of receiving precipitation and trigger dates,” says Gerrish. “So if you have not received this percentage of the normal precipitation by this date you have to do something and that is usually reducing animal numbers.”

Grazing plans differ across regions.

Gerrish encourages grazing managers to incorporate flexibility into their stock policy by grazing different classes and/or species of livestock. The objective is to have the flexibility and ability to increase stocking numbers to capture available forage when it is on hand and liquidate or not even start an enterprise when forage is not available.

Grazing plans will differ across regions. In the West, a big part of the grazing plan becomes the drought management plan.  In the East, however, Gerrish points out while you still need a drought contingency index, the percent of forage resources held in reserve need not be as great due to higher rainfall and a more forgiving landscape. In addition, Eastern producers can get away with less flexibility in their stock policy thanks to more market opportunities.

For those new to grazing planning, Gerrish gives the following advice:  “Have a good understanding of what your land is capable of producing and when it is likely to be available.”

Whether you have 30 acres and 2 milk cows, 16 sheep and 5 beefs you are finishing or are running cattle on half a million acres, Gerrish believes every farm and ranch should have a grazing plan in place.

“No operation is too small or too big,” says Gerrish. “It makes life so much less complicated when you have a plan.”

​​
Authored by Jesse Bussard a agricultural writer based in Bozeman, Montana.​​

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Planned Grazing: A Study Guide and Reference ManualPlanned Grazing: A Study Guide and Reference Manual. This is the ideal squeal to A Handbook for Ranch Managers.  Although the ecological principles remain the same, what was originally known as “The Savory Grazing Method” now answers to a multitude of different names: ranching for profit, holistic management, managed grazing, mob grazing, management intensive grazing, etc. Land & Livestock International, Inc. uses “Restoration Grazing” under its “Managing the Ranch as a Business” program.” No mater what you call it, this summary and synopsis will guide you step by step through the process and teach you how to use it as it was originally intended. No more excuses for failing to complete your grazing plans.

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